Research & Resources

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Body Worn Cameras

Police union doth protest too much on cam trial, The Age, Editorial 11 June 2012

Frankston Police to Don Crime-Busting Cameras in $25k Trial, Ashley Argoon, Herald Sun 24 December 2013.

Body-Worn Cameras Being Trialled by Tassie Special Operations Group in The Fight Against Crime” Duncan Abey, Mercury, 1 October 2014.

RevealMedia Body Worn Cameras website

Downside of Police Body Cameras: Your Arrest Hits YouTube Timothy Williams, New York Times, 26 April 2015

With, Taser Looks to Cash in on Police Brutality Debate Ali Winston, Reveal News, 9 May 2015

FBI Investigates ‘Cloud’ Celebrity Picture Leaks BBC News, 2 September 2014.

Policy Body Cams: Bill Would Exempt Footage from FOIA” Kathleen Gray, Detroit Free Press, 14 April 2015

Police Officer Body-Worn Cameras: Assessing the Evidence” Office of Community Oriented Policing Services(PDF) (Michael D White 2014.Washington DC, 2014), 16.

Police Officer Body-Worn Cameras: Assessing the Evidence (PDF) Michael D White, Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (Washington DC, 2014), 10.

Implementing a Body Worn Camera Program, Recommendations and Lessons Learnt (PDF), COPS Community Orientated Policing Services, Miller, Lindsay, Jessica Toliver, and Police Executive Research Forum. 2014.

Deaths in Custody

Indigenous Deaths in Custody, A Report prepared by the Office of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice Commissioner for the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission,  Australian Human Rights Commission, October 1996

Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody

Royal Commission into Aboriginal Death in Custody (RCIADIC) Final Report 1991

Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody (RCIADIC) – 20 years on still waiting for police accountability National Police Accountability Network Media Release, 10 August 2011

Death in Custody of Kwementyaye Briscoe

Coronial Inquest into the  death in custody of Kwementyaye Briscoe,(PDF) 17 September 2012.   CITATION: Inquest into the death of Terence Daniel Briscoe [2012] NTMC 032

Coronial inquest: The death of Kwementyaye Briscoe, Treaty Republic, January 2012

Alice Springs death in custody raises alarm  The Australian, 4 February 2012

Lawyers call for independent probe into death Alice Online, 4 February 2012

Northern Territory’s “paperless arrest” laws

High Court action against NT to challenge police powers which will disproportionately impact Aboriginal people. Human Rights Law Centre, 31 March 2015

High Court Action Against Northern Territory Government Background Information(PDF), Human Rights Law Centre, 27 March 2015

Independent Investigations of Police

Independent Investigations of Complaints against Police, Policy Briefing Paper, Flemington Kensington Community Legal Centre (2017)

Independent Investigation of Complaints against the Police, Policy Briefing Paper Flemington Kensington Community Legal Centre (2015)

Towards greater public confidence: A personal review of the current police complaints system for England and Wales, Deborah Glass, Commissioner Independent Police Complaints Commission (March 2014)

Shielded from Justice, Police Brutality and Accountability in the United States Human Rights Watch (1998)

Civil Litigation by Citizens against Australian Police between 1994 and 2002  June McCulloch and Darren Palmer (2005)

Mission Failure: Civilian Review of Policing in New York City Robert A Perry (2006)

Improving Victorian Policing Services through Effective Handling Office of Police Integrity Victoria (July 2008)

Koori Complaints Project 2006-2008 Final Report Ethical Standards Department, Victoria Police Indigenous Issues Unit, Department of Justice (2009)


Coroner’s inquest into death of Tyler Cassidy

Finding of the Coroner’s Inquest into the Death of Tyler Cassidy Coroners Court of Victoria (November 2011)

Submissions on the Scope of the Inquest Human Rights Law Centre (2010)

Submissions on the Investigation of Deaths Associated with Police Contact Human Rights Law Centre (2010)

Closing HRLC Submissions to Coronial inquest into death of Tyler Cassidy Human Rights Law Centre (2008)

UN Communication lodged by Shani Cassidy on behalf of Tyler Cassidy Human Rights Law Centre (2013)

Our Publications

COVID-19 Policing in the Pandemic: Analysis of reports submitted to the COVID-19 Policing Australia Coalition.

From March 2020 onwards, all Australian states and territories passed special laws introducing new police powers and criminal sanctions aimed at enforcing Covid-19 restrictions.

This report analyses 90 incident reports submitted by individuals of their Covid-19 policing experiences that were recorded on the COVID-19 Policing website between April 6 and August 1, 2020.


Predictive Policing and Young People: Discriminatory impacts of pre-emptive and racialised policing in Victoria

This piece of research explores the links between new predictive policing tools and how they impact over policed and communities of colour. Published by Flemington Kensington Community Legal Centre (2021)



Policy Briefing Paper 2017 covershotIndependent Investigations of Complaints against Police, Policy Briefing Paper, a comprehensive 44 page policy guide for ministers, members of parliament, police command and community advocates. Published by Flemington Kensington Community Legal Centre (2017)




vla-police-powers-your-rights-in-victoria_1Police Powers: your rights in Victoria

This free booklet is a general guide to help you when you deal with the police.  A joint publication with Victoria Legal Aid (VLA).  To order free copies contact Victoria Legal Aid publications unit on 03 9269 0234 or available Online.


The More Things Change The More They Stay The Same: Report by the Peer Advoacy Outreach Project on Racial Profiling across Melbourne, Flemington Kensington Community Legal Centre, (July 2015)


Race or Reason ReportRace or Reason? Police Encounters with Young People in the Flemington Region and Surrounding Areas (2011)

A research report authored by Zrinijka Dolic and funded through the Legal Services Board and Victoria Law Foundation.  Available online here: Race or Reason? Report (PDF)

Police Shootings in Victoria 1987 – 1989

Published by Fitzroy Legal Service (1992). Written by family members of those shot dead by Victoria Police about the campaign for accountability and justice.  Four young men from the Flemington area were shot between 1987 and 1989.

$15 copies available. Please contact us on 03 9376 4355 or

Previous publications

The publications listed below are only available via our lending library system or from the Victorian State Library. Contact centre staff for details.

“Busted: Breaking In and Breaking Through”  Kensington Community School Law Video Young People Project (2005)

This video followed a charge of breaking and entering and the legal ramifications that follow. Students from Kensington Community School developed the idea for the video. They acted in the video and participated in the editing and filming of the video.

The CD Rom was available on loan for community groups or schools for education sessions.

Right Off: The attack on Human Rights in Australia (2002)

A joint publication of Federation of Community Legal Centre (Vic) Inc.  Human Rights Working Group.  Available online here: Right Off: Attack on Human Rights in Australia 2002 (PDF)

Livin’ on the High Rise (2000)

Action Research project conducted by Victoria University of Technology (VUT) students and FKCLC on the Kensington High Rise.

Issues facing the Horn of Africa Communities (1995)

An action research project investigating the legal needs of horn of African communities living on the Flemington High Rise estate and surrounding suburbs of Flemington and Kensington.

Listen to Me! (1993)

An education kit with video and training manual for young people and police. A joint initiative from the communities of Flemington & Kensington and Victoria Police.


Our Submissions

Access to Justice

Submission to the Australian Government Productivity Commission’s Inquiry into Access to Justice Arrangments (June 2014)

Civil & Political Rights

Summary Offences and Sentencing Bill (Vic) 2014. Submission to the Scrutiny of Acts and Regulations Committee (SARC) regarding concerns about anti-protest ‘move-on’ powers amemdments to the Summary Offences and Sentencing Bill (Vic) 2014


Deaths implicating police in Victoria

FKCLC’s submission on to the Office of Police Integrity’s 2010 Call Out for Public Submissions to the Inquiry into the Investigations of Deaths Associated with Police Contact

‘Effective, Transparent, Accountable: An independent system to investigate police-related deaths in Victoria’ The Joint Submission of the Federation of CLCs, Darebin CLC, Flemington & Kensington CLC and the Human Rights Law Resource Centre to the Office of Police Integrity’s 2011 inquiry into the investigation of police involved deaths

Racial Profiling & Discrimination

Joint submission to the Attorney-General’s Department in relation to proposed amendments  to the RACIAL DISCRIMINATION ACT (CTH) 1975  (April 2014)

FKCLC and Arnold Bloch Leibler’s submission to the Victoria Police Inquiry into Field Contacts and Cross-Cultural Training (June 2013)

FKCLC Submission to the Justice Eames Hate Crimes Sentencing Review (2010)


Policing of mental illness

Submission to the Royal Commission into Victoria’s Mental Health System (2019)



Victorian and International Resources

Taser Trap: Is Victoria Falling For it? (2010)

The Federation’s report Taser Trap – Is Victoria Falling For it? brings together internal Victoria Police documents obtained by the Federation through freedom of information legislation, as well as publicly available information and the experience of CLC’s to warn the Victorian public that death and serious injury in connection with Taser use in Victoria is a real possibility. …

Federation of CLCs – Alternatives to Lethal Force – Tasers Are Not the Answer

Amnesty International – ‘Less than Lethal?’ The use of stun weapons in U.S Law Enforcement (16.12.08)

The use of taser weapons by NSW Police – NSW Ombudsman, November 2008: 

How are Taser weapons used by the NSW Police Force? Special report to Parliament October 2012

Review of Taser Policy, Training and Monitoring and Review Practices | QPS & CMC | July 2009
 Queensland Police Service and the state’s Crime and Misconduct Commission joint review on police use of tasers.

ABC 4 Corners – ‘Lethal Force’ – Reports and Resources:

Braidwood Inquiry – British Columbia, Canada:


TASER Use Videos

RCMP – Death of Robert Dziekanski:

Use of Taser by UK police against meeting of G20 activists:

Discovery Channel/Taser International XREP Promotional Video:

TASER Shockwave:

Taser International Conference 2009 – Xrep Launch:

BART Police Fatal Shooting of Oscar Grant 1.1.2009:

Tazer Blogs: 

Other useful resources:

Darius Rejali – ‘Torture and Democracy’ (2007) – p.190- 258 on use of electric shock as torture


Template FOI & Complaint Letters


Sample and template letters

Sample Complaint letter to IBAC (WORD document)

FOI request letter – VicPolice (WORD document)

A sample Freedom of Information Request letter to send to Victoria Police

FOI request letter – PTV  (WORD document)

Information Request letter to send to Public Transport Victoria

Police Complaints chatbot

Anyone who has experienced police misconduct can have a simple online conversation with the chatbot, which then drafts a formal letter of complaint and instructs you how to lodge the complaint with IBAC or VicPol.



Racial Profiling

Domestic and foreign research


The More Things Change The More They Stay The Same: Report by the Peer Advoacy Outreach Project on Racial Profiling across Melbourne, Flemington Kensington Community Legal Centre, (July 2015)

Equality is not the Same Report Victoria Police (December 2013)

Victoria Police Review of Field Contact Policy and Processes Cultural & Indigenous Research Centre Australia (November 2013)

Learning to Engage: A Review of Victoria Police Cross-Cultural Training Practices Centre for Cultural Diversity and Wellbeing, Victoria University (December 2013)

FKCLC / Arnold Bloch Leibler Submission as part of the Community Consultation Flemington and Kensington Community Legal Centre and Arnold Bloch Liebler (2013)

Key documents for Haile-Michael Race Discrimination Case Various Sources (2013-current)

Final Report on How Demographic Factors ShapYoung People’s Experiences with and Attitudes toward the Police Flemington and Kensington Community Legal Centre (March 2011)

‘Boys, you want to give me some action’: Interventions into policing of racialised communities in Melbourne Fitzroy Legal Service, Western Suburbs Legal Service and Springvale Monash Legal Service (2010)

Rights of Passage: The experiences of Australians-Sudanese young people Victorian Equal Opportunity and Human Rights Commission (December 2008)

Rights of Passage: two years on Victorian Equal Opportunity and Human Rights Commission (October 2010)

Institutional Racism in Victoria: Always and everywhere a different phenomena Gabriellel Berman (2008)

SEAAC Submission to the Victorian Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission African Young People Research Project Southern Ethnic Advisory & Advocacy Council (March 2008)

What Can Corruption and Anti-Corruption Theory Tell us About the Problems Facing Policing in Remote Indigenous Communities? Kirsten Storry (2008)

Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody (1991)

Creating a Better City for Young People: The needs of young people living in Flemington, North Melbourne, Kensington and Ascot Vale – Final Report (December 2006) – Moonee Valley City Council

Real Solutions to Racial Profiling Professor Ben Bowling at the Flemington Community Centre (2012)

Racism, Racial Profiling and Health Associate Professor Yin Paradies (2013)

Cultural Competence Continuum based on various articles by Kathy Seitzinger Hepburn

United States

Floyd v NYPD (2011) court order of the United States District Court, Southern District of New York

Expert Report on NYPD Stop, Question and Frisk Patterns for the case of Floyd v NYPD Professor Jeffrey Fagan (2012)

Unequal under the Law: Racial Profiling in Louisiana American Civil Liberties Union of Louisiana (2009)

Minnesota Statewide Racial Profiling Report: Report on the Minnesotta legislature Institute on Race and Poverty (2003)

Letter from ACLU in 2009 condemning the practice of racial profiling

Racial Profiling Resource Center Northeastern University USA

2005 ACLU Racial Profiling Report

The Black Agenda Report

US Racial Profiling Resources

Resource Guide on Racial Profiling Data Collection Systems; Promising Practices and Lesson Learned (2000) – US Department of Justice

Racial Profiling Data Collection Resource Centre  – Clearing-house for data collection efforts, law & policy, police initiatives & analytical tools)

Chapter:  Racially Biased Policing:  The Law Enforcement Response to the Race-Crime Association (2008) – This chapter summarises the research on the race-crime implicit bias and discusses the policy implications for law enforcement agencies.

Racially Biased Policing: A Principled Response, Police Executive Research Forum (2001) – Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (Fridell, Lunney, Diamond and Kubu)

How to Correctly Collect and Analyze Racial Profiling Data: Your Reputation Depends On It!, Final Project Report for Racial Profiling Data Collection and Analysis – Joyce McMahon, Joel Garner, Ronald Davis and Amanda Kraus.



Race Discrimination Case (Haile-Michael v Konstantinidis)

For official documents relating to the Haile-Michael v Konstantinidis case, please see here.

Equality is not the same report and associated materials

For materials relating to the Victoria Police’s ‘Equality is not the Same’ report, please see here.

Other significant case law

Watson v Kaba (2013) – Melbourne Magistrates Court Decision currently under appeal

Chief Commissioner of Police v Coroner Bryant (2009)

Bannerman v State of Victoria and Anor [2009]

Myer Stores Ltd v Soo (1991)

Anti-racial profiling training 

For resources relating to anti-racial profiling training, please see here.

Policy Briefing Paper 2017 covershot

PCC Report 2015 Cover


Independent Investigations Policy Paper 2015


Joint NGO Submission to UN HR Committee